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is a technique to apply electrical stimulation to nerve fibers
using cutaneous electrodes. Microcurrent stimulation for macular degeneration is
described as applying 200 microamperes of electricity from a nine-volt battery to eight points around the eye. This
technique utilizes lower currents, on the order of 50 to 500 microamperes.

The device controller provides the microcurrent using two different waveforms
and four frequencies.

In comparison, transcutaneous electrical nerve
stimulation (TENS) is a technique to apply millicurrents to nerve fibers using
cutaneous electrodes. Short pulses of electrical current last from 9 to 350
microseconds, and are applied at frequencies of 0.3 to 294 MHz. The device
controls provide for adjustment in the pulse parameters. The primary application
of TENS in health care has been to relieve pain. Other reported uses include
increasing circulation, enhancing closure of bone fractures, and improving wound


The overall rate of adverse
effects from electrical stimulation appears to be low. In the studies of AMD and
microcurrent stimulation, there were no reported adverse effects from the
electrical stimulation. Adverse effects could include: electrical burns if
electrodes are not coupled to conductive gel, dermatitis, and skin irritation at
the electrode sites with repeated application. Some materials reviewed during
the Internet search indicate that patients may self-apply the electrical
stimulation, in which case there may be risks of incorrect application. There
may also be risks if the current applied is higher than what has been studied.